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The 2019 revisions also adapted elements of the political declaration and replaced the word “appropriate” with “appropriate” with respect to labour standards. According to Sam Lowe, a trade fellow at the Centre for European Reform, the amendment excludes labour standards from dispute resolution mechanisms. [27] In addition, the Equal Competition Mechanism has been postponed from the legally binding withdrawal agreement to the political declaration,[24] and the line of the political statement that “the United Kingdom will consider taking into account alignment with trade union rules in the relevant areas” has been removed. [26] The withdrawal agreement also contains provisions for the United Kingdom to leave the Convention setting the status of European schools, with the United Kingdom bound by the Convention and its accompanying regulations on accredited European schools until the end of the last academic year of the transition period, i.e. at the end of the spring semester 2020-2021. [20] The agreement also provides for a transitional period that will last until 31 December 2020 and can be extended by mutual agreement. During the transitional period, EU legislation will continue to apply to the UK (including participation in the European Economic Area, the internal market and the customs union) and the UK will continue to contribute to the EU budget, but the UK will not be represented in EU decision-making bodies. The transition period will give businesses time to adapt to the new situation and the new era, so that the British and European governments can negotiate a new trade agreement between the EU and the UK. [17] [18] However, to some extent, the withdrawal agreement must be supplemented by provisions of Swedish law. This concerns the rights of citizens with regard to the right of concerned British citizens and their families to continue to travel, live and work in Sweden after they leave. The withdrawal agreement provided for an extension of the transition period to avoid the “non-deal” of Brexit if no agreement between the EU and the UK could be reached by 31 December 2020.

Such an extension should have been requested until July 2020. Following a statement by Prime Minister Boris Johnson that he would not use this option and that 11 months would be enough to reach a comprehensive agreement, the British government added a provision to the 2020 Law to prohibit a British minister who wants such an extension, and no extension was sought. The UK has launched the formal process of withdrawal negotiations by formally announcing the European Council`s intention to leave the EU. This triggered Article 50 of the Treaty on the European Union, which defines the procedure for the withdrawal of an EU member state, thus opening a two-year countdown to withdrawal. Since March, the EU and the UK have continued regular negotiations despite the difficulties associated with the COVID 19 pandemic. The EU is conducting its negotiations on the basis of the mutually agreed political declaration. However, significant differences have not yet been resolved in some areas. These differences include fair competition, horizontal management of each agreement and fisheries.

EU and UK negotiators Michel Barnier and David Frost and their teams have recently stepped up their negotiations. The clock is ticking, because an agreement must be reached quickly to have time for ratification by the European Parliament. The withdrawal agreement provides for a transitional period until 31 December 2020, during which time the UK will remain in the internal market, to ensure the smooth flow of trade until a long-term relationship is concluded. If no agreement is reached by then, the UK will leave the single market without a trade deal on 1 January 2021. The withdrawal agreement is closely linked to a non-binding political declaration on future relations between the EU and the UK. 3. The main purpose of the separation clauses part (Articles 40-125) is to ensure legal certainty so that, at the end of the transition period, graduating proceedings are based on the application of this directive.

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