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Before the American war, Wilson had spoken of a “peace without victory.” [48] This position fluctuated after the us entered the war. Wilson spoke of the German aggressors with whom there can be no peace threatened. [49] However, on 8 January 1918, Wilson gave a speech (known as the Fourteen Points) in which he explained the American peace objectives: the reconstruction of the European economy, the self-determination of European and Middle Eastern ethnic groups, the promotion of free trade, the creation of appropriate mandates for the former colonies and, above all, the creation of a powerful League of Nations that would ensure peace. [50] The aim of the latter was to create a forum to revise peace treaties and to address, if necessary, the problems posed by peace and the rise of new states. [51] [46] In the years following the Treaty of Versaille, many ordinary Germans believed they had been betrayed by the “November criminals,” the leaders who signed the treaty and formed the post-war government. In the 1920s and 1930s, far-right political forces – in particular the National Socialist Workers` Party or the Nazis – would win their support by promising to reverse the humiliation of the Treaty of Versaille. With the onset of the Great Depression after 1929, economic unrest was already destabilizing the already vulnerable Weimar government, thus preparing the scene for the fatal rise of Nazi leader Adolf Hitler in 1933. In October 1933, after the rise of Adolf Hitler and the founding of the Nazi regime, Germany withdrew from the League of Nations and the World Conference on Disarmament. In March 1935, Germany reintroduced compulsory military service, followed by an open rearmament programme, the official unveiling of the Air Force, and signed the Anglo-German Naval Agreement, which allowed a surface fleet 35% the size of the Royal Navy.

[146] [147] [148] The resulting rearmament programmes were endowed with 35 billion German marks over an eight-year period. [149] Wilson brought prominent intellectuals as advisers to the American delegation for peace, and the American position reflected the Fourteen Points. Wilson strongly opposed Germany`s harsh treatment. [50] While the British and French largely wanted to annex the German colonial empire, Wilson saw it as a violation of the fundamental principles of justice and human rights of the local population and preferred the right to self-determination through the creation of mandates. The idea promoted called on the great powers to act as selfless trustees in a region and to help local people until they govern themselves. [52] Despite this position and to ensure that Japan did not refuse to join the League of Nations, Wilson preferred to transfer the former German colony of Shandong in eastern China to Japan, instead of returning the territory of Chinese control. [53] Americans have further confused the politics of the American party. In November 1918, the Republican Party won the Senate election with a short lead. Wilson, a Democrat, refused to include prominent Republicans in the U.S. delegation, which made his efforts appear partisan, and contributed to the risk of political defeat in his own country.

[50] Allied talks on a common negotiating position began on 18 January 1919 at the Clock Hall, at the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, at the Quai d`Orsay in Paris. [27] Originally, 70 delegates from 27 nations participated in the negotiations. [28] Russia was excluded because of the signing of a separate peace (the Brest-Litovsk Treaty) and an early withdrawal from the war.

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